There is a difference between Torah and The Torah.

A library, a collection of Jewish wisdom told from generation to generation, Torah is less frequently (and more correctly) called Torah Shelba’peh to distinguish it from The Torah – which is less frequently (and incorrectly) called Torah Sheh’bikhtav. One literally means “oral Torah”, the other literally means “written Torah”. To avoid confusion going forward I will call the written Torah “Chumash,” which we typically translate into English as The Five Books of Moses.

Both the oral and written traditions collect voices rather than words. Can either be a “document” when seen this way?

The Chumash especially is not a document. Chas ve’shalom – G!d Forbid – that anything about The Torah is incorrect, other than calling it “written Torah”. The Torah is written: certainly, Moshe Rabénu wrote it, or caused it to be written, I do not dispute this — but this describes how The Chumash was collected: in writing. It does not describe what was collected – and what was collected other than stories?

The Chumash has other names: when presented in the scroll it is a sefer torah, each of the five sections is named, and each of the 54 traditional chapters is named. Each of these traditional chapters is called a sedra or parasha, depending on regional preference. We read one of these traditional chapters every Shabbat morning from a sefer torah in synagogue. The Chumash has the same content as a sefer torah but is otherwise quite different: The Chumash includes vowels and punctuation, which are a type of interpretation. A sefer torah contains no such aids.

Torah also has other names. Siddur, Mishna, Gemara, Talmud, Midrash, Agada – and within these names are other names, the names of books and chapters. It is all Torah. Whatever name we use to describe Torah matters less than the stories told, for each name designates a type of story. The Gemara especially collects and recounts stories. A Gemara without stories is inconceivable to anyone who has learned Talmud: a sugya is a doorway to proof, and the key that unlocks the door is stoytelling; this is the very essence of Gemara.